Glossary of IT Terms
A method of organization of work. The main rule is to replace various processes and tools with human interactions. Moreover, the Agile approach includes cooperation with customers instead of signing contracts. Reacting to changes instead of sticking to the plan also belongs to the agile methodology.
Enables machines to learn from experience, adapt to new information, and perform human-like tasks. AI has replaced people in many monotonous tasks. Machines or systems that mimic human behaviors t can successfully develop through the analysis of the collected data. The most famous examples are bots and autonomous machines, which are used in many factories. Most nowadays, cars are built by AI robots. This solution is expensive, but it reduces the risk of defects, misses, accidents, etc.
The operating system for mobile devices (other than iPhone). At the beginning of 2008, Google showed three prototypes devices with Android, and the first phone went on sale a few months later. It was an HTC Dream. Currently, this is the most popular system. It is found in most smartphones. Applications are mainly written in Java or Kotlin.
An open-source search engine platform. Its primary function is full-text searching from an indexed and specific database. It all happens in real-time, so we don't have to click any button to search. With each successive letter, more and more matched results are shown. That solution is recommended when the database isn't updated too often. It is used, for example, by Apple, eBay, and Netflix. The main competitor is Elasticsearch.
Application Programming Interface. Rules that strictly define how programs communicate with each other. API works as an intermediary, explaining who has access to specific data, such as statistics.
App Store Optimization. It is a method similar to SEO but focused on mobile apps located on Google Play and Apple App Store. Thanks to that process, a specific mobile app can be shown to a broader audience. However, it should be done separately for Android and iOS.
It is all that the user can't see, for example, the structure of code, database, or admin panel. Without this, the software doesn't work correctly. The most popular programming languages for backend are Java, C#, PHP, and Python. It is opposite to the Frontend.
It's a link from another website that points to your site and is closely related to SEO. It causes more moves on the website. Examples of external backlinks are guest or sponsored articles on other sites. However, there are also inside backlinks responsible for referring to subpages from the same page.
A safety copy. Mainly, backup contains all databases and files. It is saved on a separate server or disk. As a result, nothing is lost when the main server has a failure. Backup should be made even several times a day.
A large database with lots of variable values. The analysis of such a database is usually complicated but effective. However, it is impossible without special software, algorithms, etc. Many conclusions can be obtained from such data. Big Data is usually used in AI solutions.
A free framework developed by Twitter used to create RWD websites. It is also designed to build mobile-first websites. The main advantage of this is using a responsive CSS grid, which speeds upcoding. Moreover, Bootstrap solves a problem with compatibility between the most popular browsers by using Reboot, which normalizes source code to each browser.
A short form of the word "robot." It means software that simulates and mimics real human behaviors. It is often used to automate some tasks. The easiest examples are Chatbots and Voicebots, which we can find on many websites. They are based on AI solutions.
A technological error, usually caused by mistakes in source code.
It is one of the oldest programming languages. It is a structured language, and it doesn't support object-oriented programming. C is a base for many other languages, for example, C++, C#, Java, PHP, etc. C is mainly used in low-level tasks, such as making software or microcontrollers. Also, many libraries are based on that language because it's compatible with most programming languages. Moreover, C was used in developing parts of operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Android. Coding is easy and efficient, which causes C to be very popularized. We can find it in various devices, such as microwaves, smartwatches, automatic car gearboxes, and climate control.
Also called "C Sharp." It is an innovative object-oriented programming language that Microsoft developed as competition to Java. It's integrated with .NET, which is a framework and also a runtime program. The popular game Terraria is based on C#. It was created to develop applications for Windows, but thanks to .NET, it can be used on Linux and Mac. C sharp is also used to make web applications and cross-platform mobile apps. Moreover, it can be connected with the Unity engine, which means developing games and VR platforms. The main advantage is that it is an easy-to-learn programming language. The process of development is speedy because memory management isn't required. Furthermore, every variable must have declared a stored data type. Otherwise, the program will generate an error. It is both a disadvantage and an advantage because we have to declare more information to the program. However, it helps with finding bugs.
One of the most popular programming languages in general-purpose uses, which was created in 1985. It is suitable for developing cross-platform applications without any mods. However, that requires sticking to the rules because some libraries are adjusted to only one system. Mainly, it is used in embedded systems. For example, Apple OS X, Windows XP, Vista, and 7 are developed in C++. However, it has much more use. It is applied where software good performance is essential - Adobe used it while developing Photoshop and other programs. C ++ is also the basis for various e-commerce servers, web browsers, or game engines. C++ is more difficult to learn than other programming languages because it is more complex. However, it gives the developer more control over the program. It is crucial in the systems where it is used. Summing up, it is applied wherever good performance, and low resource consumption is necessary.
Type of software with secured source code, which is inaccessible to others. Only original authors are allowed to edit and share that software, opposite to open source. Examples of that are Skype, Java, Adobe Flash, Microsoft Office, and Mac OS.
Data processing is a service provided by an external service provider. It means that you don't need to download and install any software. Everything is done in "the cloud," but network access is necessary to make anything. The most popular cloud solutions are, for example, web disks, such as Google Drive or Dropbox, which allow storage of data and files.
Content Management System. It is a type of software made to create and edit the website's content, created for non-programmers to make it easier for them to add new content to the page. The most popular CMS is WordPress, based on PHP.
It is a software quality assurance procedure based on looking at and reading source code after implementation. It aims to exclude bugs and maximize code quality. What is essential - it should be made by another person than the program's author.
Customer Relationship Management. Type of software for managing, analyzing, and maintaining the customers, employees, and partners database.
The expansion of that shortcut means Cascading Style Sheets. It is a programming language used to define the graphic display of websites by interacting with HTML elements. CSS is used in Frontend, and it is responsible for page layout, colors, fonts, etc. The newest version, CSS3, allows creating an attractive and transparent website, especially while it is connected with HTML5.
Call to Action. Buttons encourage the user to click and continue the conversation path. It is a marketing method to generate potential leads from users. An example of such buttons is subscribing to the newsletter or creating an account on the website.
It's a practice used to defend IT against cyber attacks, data theft, and more malicious activities. It protects computers, mobile phones, servers, networks, and systems. However, this is a general term of security in the IT world, and it is divided into various categories and contexts.
An open-source and free framework and programming platform developed by Microsoft. It is not related to any programming language, which means that software can be coded in various technologies, such as C++, Python, or C#. First, Microsoft created the .Net framework, but it was only for Windows software. The current version is called .Net Core, and it is extended to support Linux and Mac OS what the previous version doesn't have. Microsoft published that version as another technology.
It is still improving analyzing data and learning from it using many processes, algorithms, and systems. It is directly related to machine learning, artificial intelligence, and big data.
Development and Operations. It is an innovative method of software development that allows saving time and improves processes. It ensures fast communication between teams and joint delivery of value for the customer. However, there is no specific definition because DevOps engineers can have various duties
A free and open-source backend framework for Python. It is created for simplification and speeds up web app development by providing ready-made solutions. Django was used, for example, by Pinterest, Instagram, and Spotify to help develop their websites.
Domain Name Server. A protocol that translates domain names into computer-understandable numerical data. For example, our domain mDevelopers.com is changed to 22.214.171.124 because this is our IP address. It works like a phone book - we choose the contact's name, and the phone uses a unique phone number that probably we don't remember.
Document Object Model. It is an API for HTML and XML documents. Responsible for the structure and the way of its representation. Another variant is virtual DOM, stored in memory and synchronized by the library, such as ReactDOM.
An open-source free framework, and its management system is developed in PHP. It is one of the most popular CMS for websites. Drupal allows creating almost any type of Internet solution, for example, blogs, forums, government websites, and even complicated web applications or e-shops. It is used by big companies such as Tesla, Warner Bros, NASA, and Pfizer. Moreover, the advantages of Drupal are security, scalability, and efficiency. Also, it is SEO-friendly. Due to that, it is in world leaders' CMS systems.
Electronic commerce that relatively recently entered life. However, now it is one of the most profitable commerce, and it is still growing. It happens because people love shopping on the Internet. Every product is available online. The only need is waiting for delivery. The biggest e-commerce companies in the world are Amazon, eBay, and AliExpress.
An open-source search engine platform, like Apache Solr. The basic is the same. Each following letter updates the search results. It all happens in real-time, which means that we don't have to click the search button. Moreover, both solutions are often compared to each other. However, Elasticsearch is younger than its competitor and offers a few more features.
Google's platform for creating mobile and web applications. It allows creating applications in modern technologies, such as React and Angular, without using Backend. It improves the work of programmers by quickly pointing out bugs, thanks to detailed reports generated all the time from the beginning.
One of the many tools to secure networks and systems, but the firewall is the first line of defense. The main solution is filtering and blocking dangerous network connections in real-time by monitoring and analyzing inbound and outbound network traffic.
An open-source toolkit and framework used to develop cross-platform native applications. Google published it in 2017, which means it is quite new technology. The main difference between Flutter and other frameworks is that the app coded in Flutter is a real native app. Moreover, developers can write one part of the source code in Kotlin or Swift, which produces a specific effect. Thanks to that, developers don't have to use only the Flutter SDK ecosystem. However, Flutter is based on the Dart programming language. Developers must learn Dart if they want to use Flutter, but it is profitable. It allows the creation of Android and iOS apps at the same time.
Defined structure to build the app, which provides a set of components and libraries dedicated to specific activities. Thanks to this, the developer can avoid many common problems that occur when creating an application. They are already solved using such solutions.
Unlike the backend, the frontend is a layer responsible for everything the user sees and feels. It is, for example, the website interface, menu, text, and the whole graphic design. It is tightly coupled with UX and UI. The most popular frontend technologies are React, Angular, and Vue.JS.
File Transfer Protocol. It is one of the most popular and the oldest standard client-server protocol that allows transferring files, mainly used to transfer and edit websites files. In this way, websites are uploaded onto the Internet.
Graphical User Interface. Variation of UI. It's a defined way of displaying information and the system's interaction with users. Examples of GUIs are icons, buttons, and menus. It replaces the commands. It's easier to just click on an icon than to type a detailed command on the keyboard.
Material parts of a computer - for example, cases, graphic cards, disks, keyboards, etc.
Renting space on the service provider's server. Thanks to this, the website placed there can be available non-stop. For example, placing a website on a private computer will make the website inaccessible when the computer is turned off, unlike hosting, where the server is running all the time.
HyperText Markup Language. It is a programming language that defines the display of a website. It consists of several elements, including tags and data types. The newest version is called HTML5. HTML allows the addition of essential elements to the text. It is responsible for headings, paragraphs, borders, and also for positioning images or videos. XHTML is an Extensible HyperText Markup Language. Theoretically, this is a successor of HTML, but in fact, it's just a different way of presenting the structure of the page code as compared to HTML.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is the protocol that defines how devices communicate. A protocol with the letter S (Secure) at the end means it provides an encrypted connection. Of course, HTTPS is better. It should be used wherever personal data is processed. This protocol is necessary on banking and government websites, as well as wherever you can pay online. You can check the type of protocol by just double-clicking on the website address in your browser.
The combination of a native and web application, which works on all mobile systems (Android and iOS). The main advantage of hybrid apps is that there is no need to write separate applications. However, to use features of native functions of the phone, such as camera or GPS, the developer must use a unique library. The most famous examples of that are Twitter and Gmail. Coding such an application is much faster and cheaper because the app shares standard code across all platforms.
One of the most popular open-source frameworks and toolkits for developing cross-platform mobile hybrid applications. It was based on AngularJS and Apache Cordova. Ionic has many features, such as allowing the choice of the framework of the user interface. Thanks to that, it is better and more extended than Apache Cordova. Moreover, it allows using the device's camera, GPS, Cordova, and Capacitor plugins. The app can be adapted to each operating system.
The original operating system from Apple, only for their iPhone and iPad. It was published in 2007 as an iPhone OS, but in 2010 the name was changed to iOS. However, this is not a separate system because it is based on Mac OS - a desktop operating system. Applications are mainly written in Swift or Objective-C.
Internet of Things. It is a method of devices communicating without humans. It needs access to the network. Mainly, we know it as Smart Home, but wearables devices and cars are also included. Thanks to that, we can control things such as washers, fridges, or lights from smartphones. Another example of IoT is also autonomous car driving systems.
A unique numeric network identifier containing information about the device and its location. It is made from four sets of numbers from 0 to 255. It means that the IP address could be from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. These are not random numbers. They are mathematically calculated. However, the IP address may change, such as resetting the router.
An object-oriented, class-based programming language and platform in general-purpose uses developed by Oracle. It is so universal that it works on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS. Java could develop whole applications, such as only small modules to the app or website. Moreover, many websites require installed Java plugin on devices to correct work because it allows running Java modules. The main advantages of Java are simple learning, fast coding, and independence from the operating systems. It makes it one of the primary most popular programming languages.
The third most important language used in web development, next to HTML and CSS. It is an advanced script programming language that allows the implementation of complicated elements. Netscape developed it. Mainly, it is used in web development. It enables the creation of dynamic content on the website, such as multimedia, animations, etc. Thanks to this, the website doesn't have to have only static information, as well as, it could have various interactive modules or 3D graphics.
A statically typed cross-platform programming language developed by JetBrains. It's running on a Java virtual machine. At the end of coding, it compiles to Java. In short - this is an overlay that improves basic Java. Currently, Kotlin is an official programming language for Android native apps. It is used in the majority of apps, such as Netflix or Uber. The main advantage is the transparency of the code, but it may be more complicated than clear Java. Moreover, Kotlin has built-in null-safety, which means the program will not create a null reference. Regular Java doesn't have such solutions.
An open-source framework for PHP, which is used to develop web applications. Such as booking platforms or e-commerce. It was created in 2011, and currently, it is the most popular framework. It gained popularity thanks to the clearness and simplicity of the code and the automation of many processes. The biggest "competitor" of Laravel is Symfony which is also a PHP framework.
An open-source and free operating system, which means everyone can use its source code. It is one of the most important differences between Linux and Windows. Moreover, that system does nothing without the user's confirmation. Linux even doesn't have any repair tools - the user must do each fix. However, thanks to that, everyone can personalize it to their needs. Also, this is a safer operating system than Windows, but it loses in entertainment and multimedia. So, who uses Linux? Mainly enthusiasts, specialists, and persons who care about privacy. It is not as popular as Windows or Mac OS.
A closed-source operating system developed by Apple for their computers. Theoretically, it is easy to use, but the person, who used Windows before, could say that is non-intuitive. The main advantage is Apple's whole ecosystem because every product, such as iPhone, iPad, etc., is integrated. Moreover, this is a very stable and safe system and also has an extended cloud system which allows for easy file transfer. Thanks to those advantages, this is a very popular system in the business. However, Apple products are relatively expensive and require you to pay for many programs.
One of the most popular platforms for e-commerce. Statistically, one of ten e-shops is based on Magento. It's a universal solution - it is matched with small shops and also with wholesale. The main advantages of Magento are scalability, open-source code, and being SEO-friendly. Companies such as Ford, Coca-Cola, and Nike used this solution because it's an excellent platform for big projects.
Also known as X11 license. One of the simplest licenses for open-source software. It gives unlimited access to using, copying, modifying, and sharing. Also, it allows selling that. MIT has only one requirement - all modified versions must have license terms and information about the original author.
Machine Learning. It is one part of AI focused on self-learning algorithms. Thanks to that, devices and systems can analyze all databases and learn from them without human intervention in the source code. The most noticeable in Chatbots is that they learn how to talk with users and constantly increase virtual knowledge. Thanks to that, there are more and more possible answers in their database.
Minimal Marketable Product. It is a phase of product development when it has limited functionality. Usually, it doesn't have important basic functions, but it's ready to enter the market. That method allows for a faster start (for a small target group) and starts generating profits. The most famous example is the iPhone which was started as an MMP.
Method of designing and developing websites and applications that assumes first to create a project for mobile devices. Only later is it adapted to the other devices. The reason for this is still the increasing number of mobile users. Moreover, the mobile version usually is lighter and faster than others because it includes only necessary features.
Multi-Page Application. It is an outdated method of creating websites pushed out by the SPA. It consists of creating many separate HTML pages, and every movement on the website causes that content must be reloaded by connecting to the server again. Because of that, the website is sluggish.
Model-View-Controller. It's a project template used in developing software. It is divided into three layers - model, view, and controller. The first layer describes the structures of data and elements. The next one is the interface that is what the user sees. And the third defines the logic and is responsible for connecting the previous two layers.
Minimum Viable Product. It is a phase of product development when it has the only important and necessary functionalities. Unlike MMP, that product isn't ready to enter the market. It is only a prototype - often one of several. It allows checking the community feedback about the product. When opinions are positive, the product can be further developed with the following functionality. Otherwise, developers will build a new and better MVP or decide to leave the project because it may turn out to be a failure - this saves time and money. An example of MVP is Amazon beginning, which started just as an online bookstore.
An open-source database management system currently being developed by Oracle. However, it was created in 1995 by a Swedish company, and it was a closed-source paid system until 2000. It is available on almost every server. Its main advantages are that it is free, safe, universalized, and efficient.
It's a dedicated application written only for a specific system, which means that the app must be written separately for Android and separately for iOS. Such an application has greater functionality than web and hybrid apps because it can use built-in smartphone functions such as a camera, GPS, or NFC. Native apps are also faster than other types of mobile apps. The most famous native mobile apps are WhatsApp and Spotify.
It's an outsourcing subcategory consisting of outsourcing projects to nearby border countries.
An object-oriented extension of the C programming language used for developing native mobile apps on iOS. Currently, this is outdated technology because Swift replaced it.
It's an outsourcing subcategory created from two words - offshore outsourcing. It is based on outsourcing projects to foreign companies no matter where they are. The most important advantage is high quality or economy - depending on the company's goals.
It's an outsourcing subcategory consisting of outsourcing projects to companies from the same country.
A popular business method consists of hiring specialist services for specific business processes. It is mainly used in IT, accountancy, supplies, marketing, or training industries. For example, non-IT companies prefer not to be responsible for IT business activities. That's why outsourcing is a perfect solution for them. It is divided into three categories based on location.
The software whose source code is available under a license, for example, MIT. It means that people who have a license can use this code, change it and share. Typically, open-source software is continuously developed by a large community of developers. Quite the opposite of closed-source software.
A scripting programming language used in website development, web applications, and e-commerce. It allows users to generate the website dynamically in real-time and change the data and files. Statistically, 80% of websites are based on PHP, such as discussion forums, e-mails, and databases. Moreover, PHP is the primary language for creating forms on websites. The main advantages are popularity, dynamism, and flexibility. Facebook was invested in developing PHP. Thanks to that, it is faster than previous versions. Popularity contributes to the fact that language will not disappear in nearly future from the programming world.
It's a brief presentation with crucial information about the business for investors. However, the pitch deck shouldn't belong to a lot of content. Startups use it to raise funds, so it should contain specific numbers, statements, and comparisons of competitors.
An additional module that increases the functionality of the software. The simplest examples of this are browser plugins, such as Google Translate or AdBlock.
Proof of Concept. It is usually a short-term process to approve the rationale of the new business project and make the plan. The team responsible for it must prove the profitability and sense of the project. Thanks to that, the company can avoid unnecessary expenses when it is unprofitable.
An open-source database management system. It was published in 1994 under MIT license. The main advantages of PostgreSQL are that it will work better and more efficiently than MySQL in software with complex database operations.
It is a template of programming that defines a way and style of work on source code. There are several types of it, such as procedural programming paradigm or object-oriented programming paradigm.
It is an early version of the product made to test its concept before launching to the market. Usually, testing is done in a small closed target group, which gives feedback.
One-way communication between the server and the application through which the notifications are displayed. These are sent on the initiative of the app administrator, not due to user requests. Of course, the user can disable this feature. It means that you don't need to use applications to receive notifications from it.
One of the most popular open-source programming languages in general-purpose uses created in 1991. Its wide features allow making everything using appropriate frameworks and libraries. Moreover, this is a cross-platform language. Mainly, Python is used for Data Science and Machine Learning. Also, it can be used on Raspberry Pi - that's a minimalist computer comparable to the size of a credit card. Using Django allows the creation of efficient web apps. The simplicity of code, readability, and universality are the most known features of Python. It is easy to learn. Its code can be read like just regular text.
QA means Quality Assurance. It is a process of testing the product to provide its high quality. It consists of various practices, such as manual testing or automation testing. Manual testing is used to check the product as a final user. However, automation testing is mainly used to find various typical issues in source code. The best solution is to combine automated and manual testing.
Responsive Web Design. It is a method of creating websites that automatically adjust their size to the screen. It means that the website is always readable, whether displayed on a computer, tablet, or phone. It's popular because nowadays we have various screen sizes on the phone. Moreover, Google better positioning pages that display well on phones.
Software as a Service. It is a type of primary cloud platform. Users pay for the service, not for the software. The easiest examples of SaaS are email, Slack, and Dropbox.
Search Engine Optimization. It is a marketing process of optimizing search engines, such as Google, by preparing the website. It is shown on as many keywords as possible, used by potential customers in a specific business.
It's a practice used by IT companies to develop high-quality software. It is divided into several stages representing step by step software development process, starting from planning and analysis, by coding, into testing, launching, and continued maintenance.
That's a general name of IT companies focused on creating and providing various software products to order. However, software houses can be categorized into different industries, solutions, technologies, etc.
Single Page Application. It is a website that doesn't reload when you use it. Everything is based on one HTML document. It makes it faster than MPA because the whole content is loaded at the beginning. As a result, the browser can load every data without communicating with the server again.
An open-source system for managing databases. It also includes a library that allows the implementation of SQL engines. It isn't required to use servers because it is based on local disks, where all files are located. Thanks to its features, SQLite is an excellent solution for in-build systems and programs. Due to that, SQLite is based on many popular Windows applications.
An open-source programming language in general-purpose uses created by Apple in 2014. Generally, Swift is the successor for Objective-C. It is used to develop for devices from the Apple ecosystem, with systems, such as Mac OS, iOS, WatchOS, etc., which means that many applications from Apple Store are developed in Swift. It is a more fault-tolerant language than its predecessor. Swift is based on transparency and simplicity from Python and Ruby, which means that it's easy to write and read for junior developers.
A free object-oriented framework based on PHP, and it's one of the most popular frameworks in the developer's world. It is fully compliant with the nowadays standards in designing and building applications. Symfony has many plugins and add-ons which extend its features. Moreover, it's easy to install and use on various platforms. Due to that, it is used by companies such as BlaBlaCar, and Joomla.
User Interface. Interface makes it easy, efficient, and enjoyable-user-friendly to operate a device that produces the desired result. It is responsible for the aesthetics and intuitiveness of the product. These are all the elements that allow interacting with the users. The most important is GUI, which provides a better look and feel.
A method of testing encompassing a single element of code.
User Experience. These are all sensations experienced by the user when using the product. The goal of good UX is to increase customer satisfaction and care of their needs. It is responsible for understanding the user's behavior thoroughly. That's why things like colors or button placement aren't random.
Virtual Private Network. A way to secure using the network. "Virtual" is a keyword because VPN exists in-network space, non-physical. Access to this network is restricted. This solution masks all connections by directing them to the VPN server. It makes a closed tunnel in which the data is transferred between computer and Internet.
Virtual Reality. It is a technology that generates 3D and 360 degrees vision generated by computers. That requires special VR goggles which allow enjoying.
An application that works on the server and connects using the network. It is launched using a browser, so access to the internet is necessary. Web app opens like a standard website but has different functionality. A typical website is informative, while a web app is interactive. For example, a hotel booking website is a web application because you can choose an apartment, book, and pay for it. However, the school website is just a standard website because there is only information.
The most popular operating system available on every computer, not including Apple products. Microsoft created it in 1985, and they are still developing it and releasing new versions. Currently, customers can buy and use Windows 10, but Windows 11 is already available in the dev-test version. That system is closed-source, which means that no one has access to the source code, unlike Linux. Moreover, this is not the most optimized operating system, but its simplicity and universality cause its popularity. Also, this is a relatively cheap solution, and the majority of programs are free to use. Entertainment and multimedia are very extended; for example, many games are available on Windows, unlike Mac OS or Linux, where gamers can't enjoy.
An open-source platform is intended to develop modern cross-platform and native mobile applications using .Net and C#.
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